COVID-19, Herd Immunity and Nanotechnology- A Review

  • Ravi Kumar Sah Student
  • Mukesh Kumar Bhagat
  • Upama Niraula

Abstract

Covid-19 had been the global pandemic cases across the world since WHO declared it as pandemic diseases. It has been global crisis which had impacted globally on health and economic sector at a time. This review article had covered the detail of COVID-19 in brief detail, its epidemiological data, herd immunity and vaccination program, vaccine development status. Also this article the nanotechnology used in vaccine development process and its future prospective. This article had been concerned over the SAARC Nations epidemiology data related to COVID-19.

Keywords: SAARC, Vaccination, India, Global Pandemic

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Bryner J. 1st known case of Coronavirus traced back to November in China. Live Science [Internet]. livescience.com; 2020 Mar 14 [cited 2020 Aug 4]. Available from:
https://www.livescience.com/amp/first-case-coronavirus-found.html
2. Khalid M, Khan B, Al Rabiah F, Alismaili R, Saleemi S, Rehan-Khaliq AM, Weheba I, Al Abdely H, Halim M, Nadri QJ, Al Dalaan AM. Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS CoV): case reports from a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi medicine. 2014 Sep;34(5):396-400.
3. Zumla A, Hui DS, Perlman S. Middle East respiratory syndrome. Lancet [Internet]. 2015[cited 2020 Aug 4]; 386(9997):995-1007. Available from:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-67360454-8
4. Statement on the Second meeting of International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). World Health Organization [Internet]. WHO; 2020 Jan 30 [cited 2020 Aug 10]. Available from:
https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/30-01-2020-statement-on-the-second-meeting-of-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-emergency-committee-regarding-the-outbreak-of-novel-coronavirus-(2019-ncov)
5. WHO Director-General’s Opening remarks at Media Briefing on COVID-19. World Health Organization [Internet]. WHO; 2020 Mar 11 [cited 2020 Aug 11]. Available from:
https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020
6. Zhang J, Zhou L, Yang Y, Peng W, Wang W, Chen X. Therapeutic and triage strategies for 2019 novel coronavirus disease in fever clinics. Lancet Respir Med; 2020.[Epub ahead of print].
7. Stage C, Vector V, Vector V. DRAFT landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines –. 2020;(August).
8. Jiang F, Deng L, Zhang L, Cai Y, Cheung CW, Xia Z. Review of the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of general internal medicine. 2020 Mar 4:1-5.
9. Goldsmith CS, Tatti KM, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Comer JA, Lee WW, Rota PA, Bankamp B, Bellini WJ, Zaki SR. Ultrastructural characterization of SARS coronavirus. Emerging infectious diseases. 2004 Feb;10(2):320.
10. Steinmetz K. Coronavirus: A Glossary of Terms to Help You Understand the Unfolding crisis. TIME [Internet]. Time.com; 2020 Mar 09 [Updated on 2020 Mar 23; cited 2020 Aug 16]. Available from:
https://time.com/5798684/coronavirus-glossary-definitions/
11. Rottier PJ. The coronavirus membrane glycoprotein. InThe Coronaviridae. Springer, Boston, MA; 1995 .p. 115-139.
12. Velavan TP, Meyer CG. La epidemia de COVID-19. Trop Med Int Health; 2020.
13. Timeline: WHO's COVID-19 response [Internet]. WHO; 2019 [cited 2020 Oct 16]. Available from:
https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/interactive-timeline
14. Coronavirus/ COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Worldometer [Internet]. worldometers; 2020 Aug 09 [cited 2020 Aug 28]. Available from:
https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
15. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard DATA Table. Who Health Organization [Internet]. WHO; 2020 Aug 09 [cited 2020 Aug 28]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/table
16. Coronavirus Resource Center, Tracking/ Critical Trends/ Mortality analyses. Johns Hopkins University & Medicine; [Internet]. Johns Hopkins University; 2020 Aug 09 [cited 2020 Aug 28]. Available from:
https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/data/mortality
17. Gombart AF, Pierre A, Maggini S. A review of micronutrients and the immune System–Working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection. Nutrients. 2020 Jan;12(1):236.
18. Chaplin DD. Overview of the immune response. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2010 Feb 1; 125(2):S3-23.
19. Herd Immunity. Association for Professional in Infection Control & Epidemiology [Internet]. apic.org; 2020 Jun 12 [cited 2020 Aug 24]. Available from:
https://apic.org/monthly_alerts/herd-immunity/
20. What is Herd Immunity & How can We Achieve It with COVID-19? Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health [Internet]. Johns Hopkins University; 2020 Apr 10 [cited 2020 Aug 25]. Available from:
https://www.jhsph.edu/covid-19/articles/achieving-herd-immunity-with-covid19.html
21. Vaccines & Immunization, Overview. World Health Organization [Internet]. WHO; 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 25]. Available from:
https://www.who.int/topics/immunization/en/
22. Herd Immunity & COVID-19 (Coronavirus): What you need to know. Mayo Clinic [Internet]. mayoclinic.org; 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 26]. Available from:
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/herd-immunity-and-coronavirus/art-20486808
23. Dey SK, Rahman MM, Shibly KH, Siddiqi UR, Howlader A. Epidemic Trend Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in SAARC Countries Using Modified SIR (M-SIR) Predictive Model. medRxiv; 2020 Jan 1.
24. Pollán M, Pérez-Gómez B, Pastor-Barriuso R, Oteo J, Hernán MA, Pérez-Olmeda M, Sanmartín JL, Fernández-García A, Cruz I, de Larrea NF, Molina M. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study. The Lancet; 2020 Jul 6.
25. Shin MD, Shukla S, Chung YH, Beiss V, Chan SK, Ortega-Rivera OA, Wirth DM, Chen A, Sack M, Pokorski JK, Steinmetz NF. COVID-19 vaccine development and a potential nanomaterial path forward. Nature Nanotechnology. 2020 Jul; 15:1-0.
26. World Health Organization. DRAFT landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines; 2020 Aug 13.
Statistics
37 Views | 15 Downloads
How to Cite
Sah, R. K., M. K. Bhagat, and U. Niraula. “ COVID-19, Herd Immunity and Nanotechnology- A Review”. International Journal of Drug Regulatory Affairs, Vol. 9, no. 1, Mar. 2021, pp. 15-21, doi:10.22270/ijdra.v9i1.451.